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                  SOLAR BASIS 
 
> Types of solar hot water system
  >  Solar insolation level
  > Collector efficiency calculation
  > Sizing a solar hot water system


Solar insolation
Solar insolation is the amount of electromagnetic energy (solar radiation) incident on the surface of the earth. Basically that means how much sunlight is shining down on us.

Click on the map of the location below to check the insolation level by different locations:
(If your location is not listed, please visit
NASA website to obtain information. )

  Asia Pacific Africa Europe Canada North America South America


Why is knowing the insolation level useful?
By knowing the insolation levels of a particular region we can determine the size of solar collector that is required. An area with poor insolation levels will need a larger collector than an area with high insolation levels. Once you know your region's insolation level you can more accurately calculate collector size and energy output.

What units are used to express Insolation levels?
The values are generally expressed in kWh/m2/day. This is the amount of solar energy that strikes a square metre of the earth's surface in a single day. Of course this value is averaged to account for differences in the days' length. There are several units that are used throughout the world.

The conversions based on surface area as follows:
1 kWh/m2/day = 317.1 btu/ft2/day = 3.6MJ/m2/day

The raw energy conversions are:
1kWh = 3412 Btu = 3.6MJ = 859.8kcal
(1Kcal heats 1L water rising by 1กใC.)

Is my region's insolation level low, moderate or high?
The following scale is a basic guide for insolation levels. Although a value of 5 is not considered very high during the summer months, as an average annual value this is very high. 

You may compare you location to the following two extreme locations.
Average annual insolation levels:
 Valencia
, Venezuela6.18 kWh/m2/day - Very High
Helsinki, Finland = 2.41 kWh/m2/day - Very Low

After knowing my insolation level, how do I calculate my collector's size?
Please click here to view details. 


Insolation Levels (Asia-Pacific)
Average Insolation (10 year average) kWh/m2/day

Country City Latitude Longitude Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Avg
AE Abu Dhabi 24กใ 28' N 54กใ 22' E 3.92 4.50 5.22 5.87 7.06 7.33 6.90 6.64 6.39 5.53 4.54 3.79 5.64
AU Adelaide 34กใ 55' S 138กใ 36' E 7.2 6.58 5.18 3.85 2.65 2.23 2.48 3.2 4.46 5.69 6.59 6.74 4.74
AU Brisbane 27กใ 99' S 153กใ 8' E 6.93 6.09 5.44 4.34 3.5 3.29 3.52 4.43 5.62 6.18 6.74 6.93 5.25
AU Hobart 42กใ 52' S 147กใ 19' E 5.97 5.33 4.05 2.73 1.79 1.44 1.68 2.41 3.6 4.78 5.92 6.18 3.82
AU Melbourne 37กใ 47' S 144กใ 58' E 6.78 6.22 4.76 3.4 2.29 1.84 2.04 2.79 3.94 5.27 6.28 6.46 4.34
AU Perth 31กใ 57' S 115กใ 52' E 7.7 6.75 5.41 4.16 3.06 2.67 2.89 3.66 4.76 6.09 7.04 7.76 5.16
AU Sydney 34กใ S 151กใ 0' E 6.34 5.68 4.87 3.6 2.74 2.5 2.67 3.53 4.67 5.61 6.32 6.6 4.59
BD Dhaka 23กใ 42' N 90กใ 22' E 4.44 5.08 5.87 6.06 5.50 4.41 4.09 4.37 4.17 4.50 4.37 4.13 4.75
CN Beijing 39กใ 55' N 116กใ 25' E 2.37 2.92 3.58 5.61 4.83 5.68 5.42 4.49 4.25 3.20 2.66 2.04 3.92
CN Nanjing 32กใ 03' N 118กใ 53' E 2.04 2.22 2.65 4.50 3.84 4.47 4.93 4.50 3.67 3.02 2.88 2.08 3.40
CN Shanghai 31กใ 10' N 121กใ 28' E 2.29 2.63 3.07 4.54 4.38 4.59 5.52 5.23 4.03 3.39 2.97 2.38 4.01
CN Hongkong 22กใ 18' N 114กใ 10' E 2.59 2.56 3.06 3.93 4.13 4.74 5.81 4.95 4.68 4.05 3.56 2.93 4.18
ID Jakarta 6กใ 11' S 106กใ 50' E 4.15 4.59 5.00 4.94 4.88 4.71 5.09 5.46 5.66 5.36 4.76 4.47 5.03
IL Tel Aviv 32กใ 05' N 34กใ 46' E 2.78 3.5 4.73 6.03 6.86 7.87 7.81 7.22 6.19 4.63 3.32 2.62 5.73
IR Tabriz 38กใ 48' N 46กใ 18' E 1.79 2.40 3.37 4.58 5.54 6.71 6.97 6.06 5.20 3.26 2.14 1.56 4.13
IR Tehran 35กใ 40' N 51กใ 26' E 2.23 2.84 3.72 5.12 5.99 7.32 7.20 6.41 5.59 3.90 2.61 2.02 4.58
IR Mashhad 36กใ 16' N 59กใ 34' E 2.22 2.97 3.88 5.21 6.29 7.49 7.41 6.78 5.70 4.13 2.78 2.06 4.74
IR Bandar' Abbas 27กใ 15' N 56กใ 15' E 3.63 4.43 5.14 6.29 7.43 7.96 7.41 6.97 6.58 5.51 4.29 3.37 5.75
IN New Delhi 28กใ N 77กใ E 3.68 4.47 5.50 6.60 7.08 6.55 5.01 4.62 5.11 4.99 4.15 3.42 5.10
IN Bombay 18กใ 33' N 72กใ 32' E 5.22 6.03 6.66 7.05 6.77 4.59 3.54 3.40 4.72 5.39 5.15 4.80 5.28
IN Bangalore 12กใ 57' N 77กใ 37' E 5.00 5.90 6.44 6.42 6.13 4.76 4.48 4.59 4.98 4.68 4.34 4.40 5.18
IQ Baghdad 33กใ 20' N 44กใ 24' E 2.79 3.64 4.59 5.76 6.83 8.10 7.97 7.29 6.25 4.44 3.04 2.52 5.27
JO Amman 31กใ 57' N 35กใ 57' E 2.93 3.67 4.83 6.04 6.88 7.91 7.86 7.27 6.25 4.71 3.47 2.76 5.80
JP Tokyo 35กใ 45' N 139กใ 38' E 2.31 2.99 3.70 4.90 5.07 4.47 4.88 5.42 3.82 2.98 2.50 2.23 4.00
KH Phnom penh 11กใ 33' N 104กใ 51' E 5.27 5.78 6.02 5.76 5.09 4.30 4.55 4.07 4.34 4.41 4.88 5.03 4.85
KP P' yongyang 39กใ N 125กใ 18' E 2.50 3.35 4.50 5.17 5.60 5.35 4.51 4.63 4.22 3.51 2.46 2.09 4.20
KR Seoul 37กใ 31' N 127กใ E 2.62 3.40 4.29 5.24 5.63 5.15 4.26 4.55 3.99 3.64 2.60 2.24 4.16
LA Vientiane 18กใ 07' N 102กใ 35' E 4.30 4.94 5.52 5.74 5.11 4.24 4.22 4.19 4.61 4.26 4.21 4.24 4.63
LB Beirut 33กใ 54N 35กใ 28E 2.64 3.4 4.63 6.03 6.96 7.9 7.84 7.19 6.13 4.5 3.14 2.44 5.68
MM Yangon 16กใ 47' N 96กใ 09' E 5.40 6.06 6.65 6.69 5.14 3.24 3.30 2.99 4.12 4.51 4.82 5.05 4.65
MN Ulaanbaatar 47กใ 55' N 106กใ 54' E 1.79 2.77 4.24 5.53 6.26 6.15 5.55 4.88 4.17 3.00 1.82 1.40 4.30
MY Kuala Lumpur 3กใ 07' N 101กใ 42' E 4.54 5.27 5.14 5.05 4.80 4.98 4.91 4.78 4.54 4.51 4.23 4.07 4.70
NZ Auckland 36กใ 52' S 174กใ 45' E 6.37 5.9 4.71 3.43 2.44 2 2.25 2.95 4.13 5.23 6.05 6.56 4.34
NZ Christchurch 43กใ 32s 172กใ 37e 5.9 4.95 3.86 2.75 1.72 1.31 1.47 2.15 3.3 4.34 5.43 5.64 3.57
NZ Wellington 41กใ 17' S 174กใ 47' E 6.27 5.31 4.17 3 1.95 1.54 1.74 2.46 3.66 4.7 5.73 6.01 3.88
OM Mascat 23กใ 37' N 58กใ 37' E 4.34 5.00 5.85 6.69 7.54 7.56 6.91 6.71 6.55 5.93 4.95 4.23 6.29
PH Cebu 10กใ 19' N 123กใ 54' E 4.53 5.15 5.83 6.25 5.90 4.83 4.76 4.93 4.96 4.75 4.49 4.44 5.07
PH Manila 14กใ 37' N 120กใ 58' E 4.82 5.62 6.42 6.75 6.19 4.96 4.94 4.41 4.86 4.63 4.59 4.50 5.22
SA Riyadh 24กใ 39' N 46กใ 42' E 4.03 4.92 5.56 6.24 7.27 7.99 7.86 7.46 6.83 5.80 4.58 3.82 6.03
SG Singapore City 1กใ N 103กใ E 4.43 5.52 5.05 5.05 4.62 4.66 4.51 4.61 4.49 4.50 3.98 3.93 4.61
TH Bang Kok 13กใ 45' N 100กใ 30' E 4.42 4.65 4.84 5.03 4.75 3.77 4.22 3.46 3.63 3.89 4.16 4.40 4.27
TH Chiang Mai 18กใ N 99กใ E 4.79 5.51 6.11 6.29 5.53 4.44 4.16 4.18 4.50 4.34 4.28 4.48 4.88
TR Ankara 39กใ 57' N 32กใ 53' E 1.77 2.38 3.69 4.54 5.53 6.63 6.99 6.55 5.22 3.24 1.99 1.51 4.17
VN Hanoi 21กใ N 105กใ 54' E 2.52 2.94 3.81 4.34 4.66 4.51 4.62 4.62 4.57 3.64 3.29 3.17 3.89
YE Aden 12กใ 50' N 45กใ 02' E 5.45 5.78 6.52 6.48 6.71 6.72 6.33 6.33 6.41 6.54 5.99 5.39 6.22

กก

Insolation Levels (Europe)
Average Insolation (10 year average) kWh/m2/day

Country State/
City
Latitude Longitude Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Avg
AT Vienna 48กใ 13' N 16กใ 22' E 1.10 1.81 2.80 3.76 4.76 5.12 5.72 4.98 3.68 2.15 1.28 0.93 3.52
BE Bruxelles 50กใ 45' N 4กใ 30' E 0.74 1.31 2.29 3.68 4.67 4.48 4.82 4.20 2.86 1.73 0.92 0.56 3.02
BG Sofija 42กใ 40' N 23กใ 18' E 1.5 2.04 2.97 4.05 5 5.8 6.29 5.68 4.46 2.75 1.62 1.27 3.99
CY Limassol 34กใ 40' N 33กใ 03' E 2.52 3.26 4.54 6.00 6.85 7.81 7.80 7.18 6.11 4.43 3.02 2.31 5.61
CR Zagreb 45กใ 29' N 15กใ 35' E 1.30 2.00 2.94 3.91 5.03 5.37 5.93 5.19 3.94 2.39 1.39 1.09 3.72
DE Hamburg 53กใ 33' N 9กใ 59' E 0.54 1.11 2.09 3.68 4.86 4.47 4.47 3.89 2.59 1.48 0.69 0.40 2.52
DE Munich 48กใ 05' N 11กใ 23' E 1.05 1.80 2.82 3.95 4.84 4.65 5.14 4.46 3.20 2.00 1.02 0.79 2.98
ES Madrid 40กใ 25' N 3กใ 41' W 1.93 2.75 4.09 4.83 5.85 6.52 7.11 6.30 4.91 3.07 1.97 1.59 4.62
ES Malaga 36กใ 42' N 4กใ 42' W 2.52 3.24 4.51 5.40 6.35 7.09 7.64 6.81 5.39 3.70 2.58 2.14 5.16
ES Barcelona 41กใ 24' N 2กใ 9' E 1.89 2.71 3.97 4.99 5.82 6.56 7.01 6.07 4.72 3.11 2.04 1.70 4.60
ES Alicante 38กใ 40' N 0กใ 30' W 2.23 3.02 4.26 5.39 6.13 6.89 7.34 6.53 5.11 3.45 2.34 1.94 4.94
FX Lyon 45กใ 46' N 4กใ 50' E 1.26 1.97 3.02 4.08 4.97 5.40 6.03 5.23 3.93 2.27 1.43 1.08 3.74
FX Paris 48กใ 52' N 2กใ 20' E 0.89 1.62 2.62 3.95 4.90 4.83 5.35 4.61 3.33 2.00 1.12 0.72 3.34
FX Toulouse 43กใ 37' N 1กใ 26' E 1.39 2.14 3.19 4.03 4.82 5.16 5.86 5.07 4.09 2.48 1.58 1.25 3.75
GR Athens 38กใ N 23กใ 43' E 2.00 2.52 3.67 5.21 6.38 7.52 7.61 6.91 5.57 3.50 2.16 1.63 4.56
HU Budapest 47กใ 30' N 19กใ 3' E 1.00 1.71 2.76 3.90 5.03 5.30 5.62 4.84 3.57 2.24 1.17 0.88 3.17
IE Dublin 53กใ 20' N 6กใ 15' W 0.56 1.07 1.97 3.32 4.40 4.30 4.30 3.40 2.69 1.43 0.77 0.43 2.39
IT Milan 45กใ 28' N 9กใ 12' E 1.27 1.89 2.91 3.65 4.84 5.36 5.97 5.21 3.91 2.40 1.42 1.08 3.33
IT Rome 41กใ 53' N 12กใ 30' E 1.78 2.52 3.71 4.87 5.98 6.84 7.08 6.34 4.83 3.08 1.98 1.56 4.21
NL Amsterdam 52กใ 21' N 4กใ 54' E 0.61 1.21 2.27 3.76 4.88 4.73 4.78 4.13 2.80 1.60 0.78 0.45 2.67
NO Oslo 59กใ 56' N 10กใ 44' E 0.3 0.87 1.68 3.12 4.65 4.84 4.59 3.36 2.22 1.02 0.42 0.19 2.27
RO Bucharest 44กใ 26' N 26กใ 06' E 1.36 1.94 2.91 3.94 5.03 5.6 6.15 5.53 4.15 2.59 1.37 1.1 3.47
PT Lisboa 38กใ 42' N 9กใ 11' W 2.27 2.99 4.3 5.15 6.13 6.46 6.89 6.33 5.11 3.44 2.27 1.84 4.43
PT Oviedo 43กใ 21' N 5กใ 50' W 1.67 2.29 3.44 4.59 5.56 6.32 6.86 5.95 4.51 2.71 1.77 1.46 3.93
UA Odessa 46กใ 30' N 30กใ 46' E 1.08 1.78 2.68 3.87 5.4 5.7 6.39 5.63 3.96 2.45 1.06 0.87 3.41
UK Edinburgh 55กใ 55' N 3' 10' W 0.44 0.94 1.86 3.18 4.33 4.34 4.13 3.41 2.43 1.2 0.59 0.32 2.26
UK London 51กใ 32' N 0กใ 5' W 0.67 1.26 2.22 3.48 4.54 4.51 4.74 4.01 2.86 1.65 0.89 0.52 2.61
SZ Bern 46กใ 57' N 7กใ 26' E 1.1 1.77 2.74 3.6 4.7 5.07 5.68 4.95 3.66 2.18 1.26 0.92 3.14
SZ Lausanne 46กใ 32' N 6กใ 39' E 1.10 1.81 2.80 3.76 4.76 5.12 5.72 4.98 3.68 2.15 1.28 0.93 3.17
YU Beograd 44กใ 50' N 20กใ 30' E 1.29 1.89 2.92 3.86 4.88 5.45 6 5.3 4.05 2.5 1.4 1.11 3.39

กก

Insolation Levels (Northth America)
Average Insolation (10 year average) kWh/m2/day

State City Latitude Longitude Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Avg
AL Birming han 33กใ 34' N 86กใ 45' W 2.29 3.31 4.04 5.14 5.92 5.98 5.81 5.7 4.8 3.93 2.96 2.25 4.34
AK Anchorage 61กใ 10' N 150กใ 1' W 0.21 0.76 1.68 3.12 3.98 4.58 4.25 3.16 1.98 0.98 0.37 0.12 2.09
AR little rock 32กใ 25' N 94กใ 44' W 2.36 3.39 4.01 5.32 5.71 6.19 6.15 5.85 5.25 4.17 2.95 2.25 4.46
AZ Phoenix 33 กใ 26' N 112กใ 1' W 3.25 4.41 5.17 6.76 7.42 7.7 6.99 6.11 6.02 4.44 3.52 2.75 5.38
CA Los Angeles 34กใ N 118กใ W 3.09 4.25 5.09 6.58 7.29 7.62 7.45 6.72 6.11 4.42 3.43 2.72 5.40
CA San Francisco 38กใ 31' N 121กใ 30' W 2.35 3.33 4.42 5.95 6.84 7.39 7.55 6.51 5.75 3.92 2.65 2.06 4.89
CO Denver 39กใ 45' N 104กใ 52' W 2.25 3.2 4.32 5.61 6.11 6.71 6.5 5.86 5.47 4.01 2.59 1.98 4.55
CT Hartford 41กใ 44' N 72กใ 39' W 1.7 2.43 3.48 4.07 5.14 5.58 5.38 5.04 4.13 2.91 1.81 1.42 3.59
DE Dover 39กใ 8' N 75กใ 28' W 1.85 2.62 3.6 4.33 5.44 5.91 5.64 5.3 4.38 3.23 2.21 1.66 3.84
FL Miami 25กใ 48' N 80กใ 16' W 3.72 4.61 5.42 6.4 6.61 6.29 6.26 6.08 5.47 4.84 3.96 3.46 5.26
GA Atlanta 33กใ 39' N 84กใ 26' W 2.31 3.37 4.08 5.2 6.02 6.01 5.81 5.59 4.76 3.95 2.98 2.33 4.37
HI Honolulu 21กใ 20' N 157กใ 55' W 4.38 5.15 5.99 6.69 7.05 7.48 7.37 7.07 6.51 5.46 4.41 4.01 5.96
IA Dubuque 42กใ 24' N 90กใ 42' W 1.64 2.58 3.34 4.57 5.54 6.06 5.81 5.26 4.33 3.03 1.72 1.35 3.77
ID Boise 43กใ 34' N 116กใ 13' W 1.73 2.72 3.77 5.22 5.9 6.57 7.17 6.12 5.28 3.29 1.74 1.46 4.24
IN Indianapolis 39กใ 44' N 86กใ 17' W 1.67 2.59 3.28 4.67 5.46 6.11 5.79 5.37 4.76 3.33 1.97 1.46 3.87
IL Chicago 41กใ 53' N 87กใ 38' W 1.5 2.45 3.2 4.48 5.56 6.07 5.68 5.27 4.51 3.07 1.69 1.26 3.72
KS Kansas City 39กใ 12' N 94กใ 36' W 2.06 2.89 3.62 4.92 5.58 6.17 6.21 5.59 4.9 3.49 2.2 1.75 4.11
KY Louisville 38กใ 11' N 85กใ 44' W 1.71 2.65 3.32 4.73 5.38 6.08 5.79 5.35 4.8 3.42 2.1 1.56 3.9
LA New Orleans 29กใ 37' N 90กใ 5' W 2.64 3.73 4.67 5.8 6.6 6.15 6.09 5.7 5.13 4.48 3.49 2.68 4.76
MA Boston 42กใ 22' N 71กใ 2' W 1.66 2.5 3.51 4.13 5.11 5.47 5.44 5.05 4.12 2.84 1.74 1.4 3.58
MD Annapolis 38กใ 35' N 76กใ 21' W 1.96 2.8 3.71 4.55 5.54 6.03 5.77 5.34 4.48 3.4 2.37 1.81 3.98
ME Portland 45กใ 36' N 122กใ 36' W 1.38 2.33 3.49 4.57 5.46 6.09 6.64 5.78 4.8 2.79 1.41 1.1 3.82
MI Detroit 42กใ 25' N 83กใ 1' W 1.43 2.33 3.19 4.34 5.44 5.98 5.64 4.99 4.25 2.73 1.52 1.14 3.58
MO St.Louis 38กใ 45' N 90กใ 23' W 2.02 2.82 3.52 4.97 5.56 6.21 6.05 5.63 4.91 3.55 2.21 1.73 4.09
MN Minneapolis 44กใ 53' N 93กใ 13' W 1.6 2.61 3.3 4.55 5.44 5.86 5.77 5.12 4.12 2.9 1.62 1.34 3.68
MS Jackson 42กใ 16' N 84กใ 28' W 1.47 2.41 3.22 4.33 5.46 5.93 5.57 4.99 4.3 2.78 1.55 1.17 3.59
MT Billings 45กใ 48' N 108กใ 32' W 1.55 2.57 3.52 4.82 5.63 6.45 6.39 5.75 4.67 3.19 1.77 1.3 3.96
MT Great Falls 43กใ 33' N 96กใ 42' W 1.3 2.36 3.41 4.84 5.56 6.18 6.44 5.53 4.4 2.9 1.53 1.11 3.79
NC Charlotte 35กใ 13' N 80กใ 56' W 2.22 3.17 3.95 4.98 5.8 6.01 5.76 5.27 4.58 3.75 2.76 2.21 4.2
ND Fargo 46กใ 54' N 96กใ 48' W 1.44 2.39 3.36 4.79 5.62 5.82 5.94 5.14 4.01 2.83 1.59 1.31 3.68
NE Omaha 41กใ 18' N 95กใ 54' W 1.92 2.76 3.45 4.74 5.6 6.14 6.11 5.46 4.74 3.34 2 1.57 3.98
NH Manchester 42กใ 56' N 71กใ 26' W 1.66 2.5 3.51 4.13 5.11 5.47 5.44 5.05 4.12 2.84 1.74 1.4 3.58
NJ Trenton 40กใ 13' N 74กใ 46' W 1.71 2.39 3.43 4.04 5.26 5.67 5.39 5.14 4.18 3 1.98 1.48 3.63
NM Albuquerque 35กใ 3' N 106กใ 37' W 2.92 3.97 4.92 6.3 6.68 6.94 6.66 5.8 5.68 4.18 3.16 2.5 4.97
NV Las Vegas 36กใ 18' N 115กใ 16' W 3.02 4.13 5.05 6.57 7.25 7.69 7.37 6.42 6.08 4.26 3.18 2.6 5.3
NY New York 41กใ N 74กใ W 1.67 2.37 3.41 3.93 5.11 5.48 5.26 5.01 4.05 2.85 1.82 1.4 3.53
OH Columbus 39กใ 16' N 85กใ 54' W 1.64 2.57 3.26 4.63 5.4 6.08 5.73 5.29 4.74 3.29 1.96 1.45 3.83
OK Tulsa 36กใ 12' N 95กใ 54' W 2.33 3.22 3.9 5.25 5.58 6.32 6.4 5.8 5.08 3.8 2.62 2.06 4.36
OR Portland 45กใ 32' N 122กใ 40' W 1.38 2.33 3.49 4.57 5.46 6.09 6.64 5.78 4.8 2.79 1.41 1.1 3.82
PA Philadelphia 39กใ 53' N 75กใ 15' W 1.85 2.62 3.6 4.33 5.44 5.91 5.64 5.3 4.38 3.23 2.21 1.66 3.84
PA Pittsburgh 40กใ 27' N 79กใ 57' W 1.59 2.4 3.26 4.07 5.05 5.53 5.27 4.94 4.05 2.88 1.86 1.41 3.53
RI Providence 41กใ 44' N 71กใ 26' W 1.7 2.46 3.53 4.2 5.17 5.67 5.48 5.08 4.21 2.97 1.8 1.43 3.64
SC Columbia 38กใ 58' N 92กใ 22' W 2.14 2.91 3.62 5.03 5.56 6.22 6.13 5.64 4.95 3.57 2.25 1.82 4.15
SD Sioux Falls 45กใ 27' N 98กใ 25' W 1.72 2.71 3.31 4.65 5.61 6.1 6.04 5.42 4.47 3.2 1.78 1.43 3.87
TN Nashville 36กใ 7' N 86กใ 41' W 1.94 2.9 3.54 4.76 5.57 5.9 5.86 5.62 4.63 3.53 2.45 1.82 4.04
TX San Antonio 29กใ 32' N 98กใ 28' W 2.57 3.7 4.43 5.54 5.94 6.62 6.49 6.28 5.7 4.67 3.43 2.62 4.83
TX Houston 29กใ 59' N 95กใ 22' W 2.47 3.5 4.4 5.59 6.03 6.45 6.36 6.07 5.46 4.61 3.3 2.44 4.72
UT Salt Lake City 40กใ 46' N 111' 52' W 2.23 3.15 4.09 5.57 6.26 6.98 6.86 5.98 5.39 3.68 2.29 1.97 4.53
VA Washington 38กใ 51' N 77กใ 2' W 1.95 2.8 3.66 4.46 5.42 5.88 5.63 5.22 4.38 3.36 2.34 1.79 3.9
VT Montpelier 44กใ 16' N 72กใ 35' W 1.58 2.54 3.5 4.05 5 5.24 5.37 4.92 3.79 2.46 1.52 1.28 3.43
WA Seattle 47กใ 32' N 122กใ 18' W 1.14 2.04 3.23 4.26 5.19 5.75 6.27 5.46 4.43 2.5 1.21 0.9 3.53
WI Milwaukee 42กใ 57' N 87กใ 54' W 1.43 2.41 3.29 4.48 5.6 6.09 5.74 5.21 4.34 2.9 1.6 1.2 3.69
WV Charleston 38กใ 22' N 81กใ 36' W 1.75 2.64 3.34 4.26 5.2 5.67 5.49 5.19 4.26 3.19 2.15 1.62 3.73
WY Casper 42กใ 55' N 106กใ 28' W 1.93 2.8 3.79 5.13 5.9 6.68 6.5 5.9 5.13 3.59 2.06 1.65 4.25

กก

Insolation Levels (Africa)
Average Insolation (10 year average) kWh/
m2/day

Country State/
City
Latitude Longitude Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Avg
BF Ouagad-
ougou
12กใ 24' N 1กใ 30' E 5.48 6.43 6.56 6.62 6.53 6.16 5.76 5.48 5.87 6.18 5.83 5.35 6.02
CF Bangui 18กใ 32' N 120กใ 36' E 4.13 4.97 5.99 6.61 6.17 5.53 5.73 4.87 5.07 4.55 4.07 3.81 5.12
CM Yaounde 3กใ 48' N 11กใ 30' W 4.94 5.38 5.16 4.68 4.46 4.42 5.17 5.07 5.03 5.4 5.29 4.83 4.98
DJ djibouti 11กใ 33' N 43กใ 09' E 5.6 5.77 6.59 6.81 6.85 6.87 6.46 6.47 6.56 6.77 6.22 5.55 6.37
DZ alger 36กใ 50' N 3กใ E 2.22 2.94 3.87 5 5.88 6.69 7.23 6.48 5.15 3.53 2.43 2.02 4.45
EG Cairo 29กใ 35' N 31กใ 09' E 3.39 4.17 5.24 6.49 7.11 8 7.88 7.4 6.42 5.07 3.86 3.19 5.68
ET addis abeba 9กใ 2' N 38กใ 42' E 5.96 5.8 6.23 6.31 6.11 5.79 5.03 5 5.64 6.31 6.15 5.75 5.84
GH accra 5กใ 36` N 0กใ 12` W 5.65 6.01 5.65 5.33 5 4.49 4.5 4.59 4.67 5.25 5.7 5.55 5.2
GM gambia 13กใ 28' N 16กใ 39' W 5.01 5.93 6.67 6.92 6.72 6.06 5.48 5.09 5.3 5.67 5.36 4.95 5.76
GN conakry 9กใ 36' N 13กใ 36' E 5.81 6.41 6.51 6.22 5.69 5.69 5.09 5.05 5.46 5.87 5.98 5.6 5.78
KE nairobi 1กใ 16' S 36กใ 48' E 6.05 6.24 6.07 5.7 5.42 5.14 4.88 5.09 5.78 6.03 5.48 5.6 5.62
LR liberia 6กใ 30' N 9กใ 30' W 5.43 5.72 5.59 5.31 5.11 4.61 4.25 4.19 4.67 5.13 5.24 5.2 5.03
LY tarabulus 32กใ 54' N 13กใ 11' E 3.1 4.03 5.19 6.48 6.89 7.77 8.11 7.45 6.12 4.58 3.35 2.76 5.48
MA rabat 32กใ 32' N 9กใ 17' W 3.13 3.86 5.09 6.08 6.89 7.31 7.34 6.8 5.69 4.37 3.25 2.82 5.21
ML bamako 12กใ 30' N 7กใ 54' E 5.61 6.35 6.64 6.78 6.42 6.47 5.87 5.65 6.04 6.13 5.85 5.36 6.09
MR nouakchott 17กใ 45' N 15กใ 45' E 5.31 6.21 6.8 7.54 7.57 7.63 7.2 6.9 6.78 6.34 5.49 4.88 6.55
NE niamey 13กใ 30' N 2กใ 12' W 5.42 6.39 6.72 6.79 6.75 6.31 6.07 5.78 6.07 6.16 5.79 5.29 6.12
NG abuja 9กใ 12' N 7กใ 11' E 5.57 6.33 6.22 6.1 5.89 5.47 4.92 4.65 5.12 5.82 5.81 5.42 5.61
SD al khur-tum 15กใ 33' N 32กใ 32' E 5.46 6.19 6.75 7.25 6.85 6.96 6.52 6.35 6.42 6.17 5.66 5.22 6.31
SL freetown 8กใ 29' N 13กใ 14' W 5.19 5.91 6.08 5.47 4.76 4.09 3.6 3.58 4.25 4.84 4.93 4.94 4.8
SN dakar 14กใ 38' N 17กใ 27' W 4.84 5.77 6.56 6.81 6.7 5.7 5.15 5.01 5.13 5.46 5.03 4.63 5.56
SO muqdisho 2กใ 02' N 45กใ 20' E 6.38 6.81 6.71 6.28 5.85 5.45 5.21 5.61 6.15 6.16 6 5.91 6.04
TN tunis 36กใ 47.8' N 10กใ 6.8' E 2.29 3.06 4.09 5.47 6.38 7.16 7.57 6.8 5.33 3.65 2.54 2.08 4.7

Insolation Levels (Canada)
Average Insolation (10 year average) kWh/m2/day

State City Latitude Longitude Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Avg
AB Edmonton 53กใ  34' N 113กใ  31' W 1.45 2.36 3.41 4.25 4.91 5.42 5.55 4.76 3.52 2.18 1.43 1.21 3.37
BC Victoria 48กใ  25' N 123กใ  19' W 1 1.82 2.93 4.01 5.13 5.54 5.85 5.28 3.88 2.17 1.11 0.86 3.29
MB Winnipeg 49กใ  54' N 97กใ  14' W 1.21 2.08 3.27 4.55 5.54 5.8 5,85 4.84 3.32 2.21 1.33 1.02 3.41
NL St. Johns 45กใ  19' N 65กใ  53' W 1.56 2.27 3.48 4.19 4.76 5.05 5.05 4.54 3.53 2.29 1.43 1.27 3.28
NS Halifax 44กใ  39' N 63กใ  34' W 1.56 2.31 3.46 4.09 4.82 5.27 5.41 4.86 3.92 2.54 1.53 1.3 3.42
ON Toronto 43กใ  41' N 79กใ  38' W 1.44 2.27 3.19 4.13 5.15 5.83 5.67 4.82 3.66 2.47 1.48 1.20 3.44
QC Montreal 45กใ  28' N 73กใ  45' W 1.45 2.36 3.41 4.25 4.91 5.42 5.55 4.76 3.52 2.18 1.43 1.21 3.37
SK Regina 45กใ  19' N 65กใ  53' W 1.14 1.96 3.02 4.69 5.48 5.79 6.14 4.96 3.42 2.29 1.30 0.95 3.42

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Insolation Levels (South America)
Average Insolation (10 year average) kWh/m2/day

Country State/
City
Latitude Longitude Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Avg
Belize
Belize City
17º 30' N
88º 11' W
3.73
4.59
5.45
5.97
5.75
5.19
5.03
5.16
4.82
4.50
3.99
3.54
4.81
Costa Rica
San Jose
09º 59' N
84º 04' W
6.09
6.74
7.23
6.64
5.26
5.00
4.94
4.84
4.76
4.63
4.63
5.30
5.51
El Salvador
San Salvador
13º 40' N
89º 10' W
5.58
6.23
6.68
6.52
5.95
5.74
6.22
6.18
5.49
5.61
5.42
5.30
5.91
Guatemala
Guatemala City
14º 37' N
90º 31' W
4.93
5.48
5.90
5.81
5.35
4.91
5.27
5.12
4.59
4.68
4.65
4.62
5.11
Honduras
Tegucigalpa
14º 05' N
87º 14' W
4.26
5.08
5.84
5.99
5.54
5.35
5.34
5.47
5.04
4.43
4.15
3.91
5.03
Mexico
Acapulco
16º 50' N
99º 54' W
5.46
6.30
7.17
7.41
7.06
6.16
6.29
6.20
5.45
5.94
5.56
5.19
6.18
Mexico
Cancun
21º 10' N
86º 50' W
4.16
5.14
6.04
6.86
6.79
6.47
6.63
6.65
5.86
5.19
4.51
3.90
5.68
Mexico
Chihuahua
28º 39' N
106º 05' W
3.41
4.34
5.63
6.43
6.88
6.53
5.69
5.30
5.14
4.65
3.89
3.26
5.10
Mexico
Guadalajara
20º 40' N
103º 40' W
4.24
5.18
6.21
6.71
6.89
6.00
5.23
5.41
5.14
5.11
4.79
4.13
5.42
Mexico
La Paz
24º 09' N
110º 18' W
3.73
4.67
5.75
6.63
7.16
7.07
6.40
6.06
5.52
4.93
4.11
3.51
5.46
Mexico
Mexico City
19º 26' N
99º 08' W
4.34
5.07
5.89
5.95
5.90
5.03
4.76
4.86
4.57
4.73
4.57
4.29
5.00
Mexico
Monterrey
25º 40' N
100º 23' W
3.33
4.20
5.40
5.71
6.06
5.89
5.59
5.44
4.76
4.49
3.90
3.23
4.83
Mexico
Oaxaca
17º 04' N
96º 43' W
4.36
4.99
5.74
6.08
5.86
5.01
4.92
4.95
4.43
4.63
4.38
4.08
4.95
Mexico
Puerto Vallarta
20º 39' N
105º 14' W
4.20
5.29
6.39
7.12
7.51
6.96
6.17
5.99
5.32
5.30
4.82
4.00
5.76
Mexico
Tijuana
32º 32' N
117º 01' W
3.32
4.15
5.23
6.37
6.61
6.43
6.46
6.31
5.40
4.26
3.65
3.08
5.11
Mexico
Veracruz
19º 10' N
96º 07' W
3.55
4.13
4.86
5.35
5.40
5.12
5.15
5.17
4.66
4.45
3.92
3.43
4.60
Nicaragua
Managua
12º 10' N
86º 15' W
5.34
5.89
6.59
6.54
5.83
5.67
5.70
5.69
5.43
5.39
5.15
5.05
5.69
Panama
Panama City
08º 58' N
79º 33' W
5.27
5.92
6.23
5.75
4.78
4.11
4.16
4.15
4.24
3.99
4.23
4.66
4.79
Cuba
Havana
23º 09' N
82º 21' W
4.09
4.97
5.92
7.06
7.15
7.10
6.90
6.86
6.10
5.12
4.26
3.74
5.77
Jamaica
Kingston
17º 58' N
76º 48' W
4.92
5.67
6.45
6.80
6.50
6.82
6.84
6.61
6.23
5.45
4.76
4.58
5.97
Puerto Rico
San Juan
18º 15' N
66º 30' W
4.26
4.90
5.70
6.09
5.89
6.09
6.08
5.78
5.26
4.80
4.36
4.15
5.28
Martinique
Fort de France
14º 37' N
61º 05' W
5.35
5.98
6.59
6.94
6.70
6.42
6.49
6.45
6.03
5.87
5.15
5.15
6.09
Dominican Rep.
Santiago
18º 29' N
69º 54' W
3.89
4.46
5.24
5.53
5.52
5.48
5.41
5.13
4.80
4.46
4.03
3.78
4.81
Argentina
Buenos Aires
34º 36' S
58º 23' W
6.44
5.67
4.53
3.53
2.74
2.04
2.31
3.27
4.23
5.12
6.36
6.44
4.39
Argentina
Cordoba
31º 24' S
64º 12' W
7.07
6.30
4.90
3.87
3.01
2.65
2.79
3.63
4.76
5.93
6.63
6.96
4.88
Argentina
Rio Gallegos
51º 37' S
69º 13' W
5.47
4.63
3.32
2.02
1.07
0.71
0.81
1.61
2.87
4.26
5.53
5.79
3.17
Bolivia
La Paz
16º 29' S
68º 08' W
5.30
5.57
5.16
5.01
4.78
4.37
4.51
4.96
5.66
5.98
6.15
5.92
5.28
Bolivia
Santa Cruz
17º 47' S
63º 10' W
4.57
4.90
4.57
3.92
3.44
3.25
3.44
4.01
4.45
5.00
5.21
5.01
4.31
Bolivia
Sucre
19º 02' S
65º 15' W
1.67
2.29
3.47
4.58
5.59
6.37
6.86
5.97
4.51
2.73
1.77
1.46
3.94
Brazil
Belem
01º 27' S
48º 29' W
4.54
4.34
4.26
4.46
4.75
4.99
5.27
5.50
5.85
5.79
5.52
4.96
5.02
Brazil
Belo Horizonte
19º 55' S
43º 56' W
5.45
5.63
5.34
4.78
4.30
4.09
4.32
4.82
5.05
5.26
5.25
4.98
4.94
Brazil
Brasilia
15º 52' S
47º 56' W
5.21
5.15
5.09
4.99
4.80
4.59
4.86
5.46
5.28
5.23
4.97
4.82
5.04
Brazil
Curitiba
25º 26' S
49º 15' W
5.48
4.88
4.32
3.57
2.95
2.83
2.96
3.47
3.87
4.65
5.44
5.41
4.15
Brazil
Fortaleza
03º 43' S
38º 31' W
5.85
5.44
4.82
4.80
5.11
5.34
5.74
6.34
6.60
6.62
6.50
6.16
5.78
Brazil
Manaus
03º 08' S
60º 01' W
4.15
4.12
4.22
4.34
4.08
4.24
4.55
4.98
5.23
4.93
4.72
4.23
4.48
Brazil
Porto Alegre
30º 02' S
51º 13' W
6.08
5.56
4.54
3.48
2.81
2.27
2.50
3.06
3.89
5.01
5.93
6.50
4.30
Brazil
Recife
08º 05' S
34º 54' W
6.59
6.22
5.95
5.05
4.84
4.61
4.38
5.07
5.78
6.23
6.40
6.48
5.63
Brazil
Rio de Janeiro
22º 54' S
42º 10' W
5.40
5.34
4.87
4.11
3.43
3.35
3.39
3.83
3.77
4.41
4.97
4.98
4.32
Brazil
Salvador
12º 59' S
38º 30' W
5.89
5.79
5.28
4.59
4.09
3.75
3.83
4.26
4.79
5.32
5.38
5.61
4.88
Brazil
Sao Paulo
23º 33' S
46º 39' W
5.44
5.05
4.75
4.21
3.47
3.36
3.54
4.19
4.25
5.09
5.73
5.38
4.54
Chile
Iquique
20º 13' S
70º 10' W
7.42
7.34
6.19
4.70
3.45
2.78
3.04
3.39
4.53
5.37
6.36
7.40
5.16
Chile
Osorno
40º 35' S
73º 14' W
6.78
6.02
4.34
2.93
1.91
1.43
1.69
2.48
3.50
4.95
6.47
6.98
4.12
Chile
Santiago
33º 27' S
70º 42' W
7.55
6.56
5.13
3.83
2.59
2.22
2.38
3.09
4.08
5.64
6.84
7.82
4.81
Chile
Valparaiso
33º 01' S
71º 38' W
7.55
6.56
5.13
3.83
2.59
2.22
2.38
3.09
4.08
5.64
6.84
7.82
4.81
Columbia
Bogota
04º 36' N
74º 05' W
4.50
4.48
4.67
4.46
4.45
4.63
4.71
4.70
4.80
4.28
4.24
4.32
4.52
Columbia
Cali
03º 27' N
76º 30' W
3.63
3.90
4.09
3.89
3.76
3.71
4.05
3.93
3.89
3.52
3.49
3.44
3.78
Columbia
Cartagena
10º 25' N
75º 32' W
5.74
6.18
6.54
6.30
5.62
5.56
5.66
5.72
5.35
4.72
4.90
5.30
5.63
Columbia
Medellin
06º 14' N
75º 34' W
3.95
4.22
4.38
3.95
4.01
4.36
4.67
4.51
4.37
3.82
3.78
3.86
4.16
Ecuador
Guayaquil
02º 13' S
79º 54' W
6.07
6.01
6.31
6.31
5.83
4.88
4.50
4.50
4.95
4.69
5.29
5.93
5.44
Ecuador
Quito
00º 14' S
78º 30' W
3.57
3.56
3.71
3.71
3.73
3.81
3.85
3.88
3.89
3.79
3.85
3.68
3.75
French Guiana
Cayenne
04º 56' N
52º 27' W
3.91
4.34
4.55
4.66
4.04
4.25
4.96
5.40
5.81
5.51
4.91
4.29
4.72
Guyana
Georgetown
06º 50' N
58º 12' W
4.12
4.57
4.98
5.09
4.49
4.32
4.65
4.90
5.15
4.88
4.42
4.01
4.63
Peru
Arequipa
16º 25' S
71º 32' W
4.95
5.26
4.88
4.90
4.80
4.53
4.78
5.16
5.70
5.84
5.96
5.54
5.19
Peru
Cusco
13º 30' S
71º 58' W
4.19
4.43
4.23
3.99
3.74
3.56
4.01
4.29
4.55
4.72
4.67
4.50
4.24
Peru
Lima
12º 03' S
77º 02' W
7.27
7.52
7.25
6.28
4.78
3.34
3.17
3.39
4.33
5.11
6.02
6.85
5.44
Paraguay
Asuncion
25º 20' S
57º 31' W
6.10
5.77
4.98
3.84
3.48
2.76
3.09
3.97
4.49
5.26
6.22
6.26
4.69
Suriname
Paramaribo
05º 49' N
55º 09' W
4.13
4.63
5.07
5.08
4.78
4.78
5.12
5.42
5.87
5.61
4.97
4.47
4.99
Venezuela
Caracas
10º 30' N
66º 54' W
5.14
5.82
6.11
5.94
5.76
5.63
5.77
5.77
5.72
5.56
5.01
4.84
5.59
Venezuela
Maracaibo
10º 39' N
71º 36' W
4.71
5.09
5.42
5.22
5.12
5.28
5.49
5.31
5.20
4.68
4.55
4.51
5.05
Venezuela
Valencia
10º 09' N
68º 00' W
5.75
6.68
7.17
7.28
6.48
5.11
5.92
6.26
6.26
6.13
5.76
5.41
6.18

Data courtesy of: NASA - Surface meteorology and Solar Energy Data Set
(Solar Energy Data Set for Renewable Energy Industry Use.)

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